An example of the Internet of Things architecture is Healthcare. Healthcare is among the major industries that have been leaders and forerunners in the adoption of the Internet of Things technologies. The reason for this is that IoT systems help to leverage high quality care for patients and combine it with long-run but massive savings.
Within healthcare, the key IoT applications include, but are not limited to, enhancement of patient and personnel safety and security, reduction of unnecessary healthcare costs, and the provision of suitable support at the right time by employing IoT-empowered smart medical and emergency systems.
In view of the huge population challenges ahead, one of the greatest concerns in healthcare is elderly care and monitoring of illnesses like diabetes and heart-related diseases. Thus, prevention plays a key role in providing better health for elderly patients. Therefore, it is no wonder that the Internet of Things is gaining ground especially in health monitoring, where reliability, security and real-time precise control are a must.
The example automatic monitoring system for elderly patients requires data collection and real-time analysis, network connectivity for access to the infrastructure services, and an application to support user interface and display. Therefore, its architecture must include body sensors to collect patient data, gateways to filter and forward the data, microcontrollers or microprocessors to analyse and wirelessly send the data to the cloud as well as a communication tool to transfer the data to a remote location like emergency service or healthcare provider for monitoring and tracking purposes.
The Internet of Things architecture for the system consists of three stages: physical, communication, and application.
The first layer features a multiple-sensor network that evaluates the patient’s vital readings such as nutrition, medical intakes, and physical activities.
Also included in the physical layer is another monitoring network that consists of in-house sensors and actuators to maintain air quality, temperature, and to analyse and determine any hazardous conditions for the patient.
The second layer includes OT devices that collect the information gathered by the sensors, translate it into meaningful data streams and transfer them to a back-end destination.
The third layer is where data is received, stored, and processed using cloud-based data analysis engines and machine learning mechanisms.
The resulting insights can be used to recommend the proper healthcare service for each specific situation or applied in further research or management purposes.